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Factors predisposing to Osteoarthritis(OA)

Factors predisposing to Osteoarthritis(OA)
  • Obesity: Predicts later risk of radiological and symptomatic OA of the hip and hand in population studies
  • Heredity: Familial tendency to develop nodal and generalized OA
  • Gender: Polyarticular OA is more common in women; a higher prevalence after the menopause suggests a role for sex hormones
  • Hypermobility : Increased range of joint motion and reduced stability lead to OA
  • Osteoporosis: There is a reduced risk of OA
  • Diseases 
    • Pre-existing joint damage:
      1. Rheumatoid arthritis
      2. Gout
      3. Spondyloarthritis
      4. Septic arthritis
      5. Paget’s disease
      6. Avascular necrosis
      7. corticosteroid therapy
    • Metabolic disease:
      1. Chondrocalcinosis
      2. Hereditary haemochromatosis
      3. Acromegaly
    • Systemic diseases:
      1. Haemophilia – recurrent haemarthrosis
      2. Haemoglobinopathies, e.g. sickle cell disease
      3. Neuropathies
  • Trauma: A fracture through any joint. Meniscal and cruciate ligament tears cause OA of the knee
  • Congenital joint dysplasia: Alters joint biomechanics and leads to OA. Mild acetabular dysplasia is common and leads to earlier onset of hip OA
  • Joint congruity: Congenital dislocation of the hip or a
    slipped femoral epiphysis or Perthes’ disease; osteonecrosis of the femoral head in children and adolescents causes early-onset OA
  • Occupation: Miners develop OA of the hip, knee and shoulder, cotton workers OA of the hand, and farmers OA of the hip
  • Sport: Repetitive use and injury in some sports causes a high incidence of lower-limb OA.
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