Mesothelioma is an aggressive, universally fatal, neoplasm arising from the serosal surfaces usually of the pleura (>90%), peritoneum (7%) or rarely the pericardium or tunica vaginalis.
More than 90% of cases occur in the Pleura, thus it is called Pleural Mesothelioma.
There are 4 stages of Pleural Mesothelioma. They are
Stage 1: Mesotheliomma is confined to the pleural layer in one side of the body. Cancer doesn’t spread to the lymph nodes and it’s the earliest stage of cancer which has more treatment options including surgery.
Stage 2: Cancer is still localized to the pleura of one side of the body, but can see the metastasis to adjacent lymph nodes.
Stage 3: Signs and symptoms of significant metastasis can be clearly seen. Malignancy has spread to nearby regional lymph nodes and adjacent structures. In this stage, surgery is not much effective in treating the patient.
Stage 4: Last stage of Mesothelioma in which we can see the Metastasis in the other side of the body as well. For Stage 4 patients, treatment option is palliative, which focuses on providing symptomatic relief from pain and stress.
We can divide these 4 stages into several sub-types.
- Stage 1
- Stage 1a
Pleural Mesothelioma is in the parietal pleura or visceral pleura in one side of the body.
- Stage 1b
Malignancy is in the parietal layer or visceral layer of the pleura on the same side of the chest, but it has also spread to the diaphragm or to the lung.
- Stage 1a
- Stage 2
Cancer is in the parietal or visceral pleura, but It may have also grown into the diaphragm, lung tissues and the lymph nodes on the same side.
- Stage 3
- Stage 3a
Cancer is in the parietal or visceral pleura, but It may have also spread into the adjacent lymph nodes, connective tissues of upper chest wall and lining of the heart on the same side of the body.
- Stage 3b
Cancer is in the parietal or visceral pleura, but It may have also spread into the intercostal muscles, ribs, peritoneum, parietal layer or visceral layer of pleura on the other side, trachea, esophagus, mediastinal blood vessels, heart or vertebrae
- Stage 3a
- Stage 4
This stage is called metastatic pleural mesothelioma. In this stage, distant metastasis can be seen as the cancer grows into the lung on the other side of the body, bones or liver etc.