Rish Academy

MUDPILES Mnemonic for High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

MUD PILES Mnemonic/Acronym

MUDPILES Mnemonic for High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis is one of the most popular and useful mnemonics to remember the causes of increased Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

The most common causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis are ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and toxic ingestions. But there are also several other causes that can be remembered using a mnemonic called MUD PILES.


What does MUDPILES stand for?

  • MMethanol

  • U Uremia (chronic kidney failure)

  • D Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • P Paracetamol, Propylene glycol, Paraldehyde

  • I Infection, Iron, Isoniazid, Inborn errors of metabolism

  • L Lactic acidosis

  • E Ethylene glycol, Ethanol

  • S Salicylates

A short summary of High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis


Metabolic acidosis can arise when the kidneys are not eliminating enough acid from the body or when the body produces too much acid. There are different types of metabolic acidosis that are categorized based on how they affect the anion gap.

The anion gap can be increased due to relatively low levels of cations other than sodium and potassium (e.g. calcium or magnesium). An anion gap is often considered as high if it exceeds 12 mEq/L.


Click the button below to Download 570+ High-Yield Medical Presentations in Emergencies in Medicine Study Resources, Orthopedics Study Resources, Gynaecology & Obstetrics Study Resources, Surgery Study Resources, and Clinical Medicine


Share this :

Related Articles